Where accuracy is concerned, robots have traditionally relied on repeatability. In the past, robotic accuracy has not been published or developed to a level of maturity acceptable to standard production processes. Critical aerospace manufacturing techniques such as fastening and drilling were historically not held to tight tolerances. Typical tolerances for airframe assembly fastening were in the + 0.030″ range. The standard is set by the positional requirement for drilling of fastener holes which has been taken as a key target application for robotics in aerospace manufacturing. Because there are many factors that influence robot accuracy, it is important to define the accuracy requirements for the system. Different levels of accuracy require different solutions; the higher the accuracy required the more factors that must be considered, adding to the cost and complexity of the solution. The level of accuracy should be defined according to the process requirements. Some processes will only require positional accuracy while others require path accuracy, and some applications will require both.
Recently, for example, manufacturers are demanding high wear parts that require frequent maintenance and replacement be replaced seamlessly with identically manufactured parts. Inconsistent and inaccurately machined or assembled replacement parts might traditionally have meant time lost due to trimming, deburring or other adjustments. Reducing fastener tolerances not only improves the reproducibility of an assembled component, it also allows for a reduction in overall structure weight due to reduced fastener size and weight. Eliminating these adjustments by machining or assembling precisely formed parts allows for predictable and timely part replacement, reducing costs and downtime and allowing for parts to be interchanged repeatedly without any interruption in production. “The introduction of robotic accuracy into the manufacturing process guarantees that this replacement is smooth, does not interrupt the manufacturing process, is cost-effective and highly accurate,” said a company spokesperson.
High accuracy is also critical in data driven applications – those developed using offline programming methods. For example, an advanced deburring process can begin offline with products such as FANUC Robotics’ ROBOGUIDE PC-based simulation software. ROBOGUIDE allows users to import 3-D representations of robots, parts and system peripherals to create realistic “virtual” workcells. Using ROBOGUIDE’s built-in utilities, part features can be selected from 3-D CAD data of the part. Robot programs can then be generated automatically from these selected features. Even vision programming can be accomplished offline. “Until recently, it was not easy to off-line program a robot without having to perform extensive manual touch-up of the programs on the production floor. Because of the large number of points required for airframe drilling, it is mandatory to off-line program without extensive program touch-up,” said the spokesperson.
Robot Accuracy and Repeatability
Robot accuracy is a measure of how close a robot can attain a known position. It is required for systems where the paths are taught offline or if the process requires changing the robot position dynamically using vision or another means. Robot repeatability is a measure of the robot’s ability to return to a known position. High robot accuracy during manufacturing ensures that parts are precisely manufactured with predictable results even after changes are made to the process. “High accuracy robots are becoming valuable tools for many processes in aerospace manufacturing such as drilling and fastening, deburring and trimming, and a variety of others such as non-destructive inspection, coatings and composite layup. Manufacturers can see cost savings as a result,” said the spokesperson.
Systems that combine processes like drilling, routering and material removal require both positional accuracy and path accuracy. Positional accuracy is a measure of how accurately the robot can achieve a commanded position. Positional accuracy is required for processes like drilling, where the robot moves to a position, stops and holds that position while the process is completed. Path accuracy is a measure of how accurately the robot follows a line between two points. Path accuracy is required for processes like laser cutting where the process is taking place while the robot is moving between points.
Robot accuracy is improved when the work zone is defined as localized as possible. It is important to define where in the robot’s work envelope the process will take place. This is called the process work zone. A higher level of accuracy is achievable if the process work zone is defined and the calibration is restricted to this zone. When defining a process work zone, there are three considerations to follow. First, the process work zone needs to include all processes that require accuracy. Second, make the zone only as large as the process requires. Third, limit robot configuration (orientation) changes in the process work zone as much as possible.
Different levels of accuracy require different solutions. The required level of robot accuracy determines the number of options and calibration tools required to achieve that accuracy. The more calibration tools required, the more complex and expensive the solution will be. FANUC Robotics uses several software applications and robot model combinations designed to maintain accuracy in aerospace manufacturing solutions. Some of those calibration tools include robot joint axis mastering, tool center point calibration, part frame calibrations, robot-to-robot calibrations for coordinated motion and multi-robot applications. Many of these calibrations use FANUC intelligent based tools like touch sense or iRVision. Some more advanced calibration options available include iRCalibration Signature (re-modeling of the true parameters of the robot based on metrology feedback), secondary encoder feedback and deflection compensation tools. For even tighter tolerances a metrology tool such as a laser tracker can be used to guide the robot to precision better than .1 mm.
Repeatable robot paths and tool execution means critical material cost savings in removal applications. An added benefit of using accurate robots for aerospace manufacturing is the inherent repeatability of robotic processes allowing for better predictability and control of process parameters. This makes it easier to identify and refine process parameters that affect component quality. In addition, robots can execute complex or repetitive processes at very high speeds.
The most significant game-changing process in aerospace manufacturing is carbon fiber layup. In this process, carbon fibers are combined with a resin or epoxy material to create a lightweight but strong composite. This material is designed for the aerospace industry because it can reduce the weight of the airplane in order to achieve better fuel economy without sacrificing strength or durability. Robotic accuracy is important in this process because the placement of the carbon fiber strands relative to each other is critical to the structural integrity of the component.
One important feature used to achieve high accuracy in FANUC robots is the use of secondary encoders. Secondary encoders connected directly to the controller are installed on the output side of each axis drive train to measure and control the true position of each axis. This allows the robot to control position eliminating errors due to backlash and essentially improving the ability of the robot to achieve a commanded position. This is designed for applications that require high precision or need to compensate for external forces.
Deflection compensation and advanced motion planning tools are also critical in the manufacture of large aerospace parts where large tools are mounted to the robot, the robot tooling is required to contact the part and where off-line programming is critical. Some additional applications that have benefited from high accuracy robots are aerospace engine components manufacturing and airframe painting/depainting.
Several factors contribute to robot accuracy and must be considered:
Robot foundation, mounting and environmental considerations
Foundation, Mounting and Environmental Considerations
One of the first considerations when designing a highly accurate system is how the robot is mounted or anchored to the floor; this is a critical consideration and cannot be underestimated. If the robot is not securely anchored to the floor, the robot can pitch or yaw in different directions or shift from the inertia of the robot’s movement and payload. The amount of effort spent on making the robot accurate will not matter if the very foundation to which it is mounted is not secure. This includes the floor thickness, how it is anchored, if it is isolated and the number of anchors, floor flatness and the thickness of the base plate. The riser construction needs to be as ridged as possible to ensure only minor deflections. “Some options to consider are to create the riser as a hollow tube and fill the tube with concrete. If this option is used, use ample gussets and the proper thickness for the base plates and robot mounting plate,” said a company spokesperson.
The effects of thermal expansion should be considered for the applications that require a high level of accuracy. There are two factors that directly influence thermal expansion. The first is thermal expansion due to ambient temperature, which is the temperature in the atmosphere surrounding the robot. Controlling the ambient temperatures in which the robot works can help to control thermal expansion. The second is thermal expansion due to self-heating; reducers and motors will heat up during robot operation causing the robot castings to expand, which could alter robot accuracy. The ambient temperature cannot control thermal expansion due to self-heating. There is one factor that will directly affect the magnitude of the thermal expansion in both cases. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the material used to construct the robot is a major factor when allowing for thermal expansion. The coefficient of linear thermal expansion of aluminum is 23 where the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of steel is 11 to 13 depending on composition. This means that the effects of thermal expansion for a robot constructed of aluminum will be approximately double that of a robot constructed out of steel.
End of Arm Tooling (EOAT)
The next consideration is the design of the EOAT, payload and dress out. The mass properties of the payload must be accurately defined. This is also true for any valve packages that are mounted on the robot’s arm. The better the payload is defined, the better the robot software will be able to correct the robot’s position due to gravitational effects. For calibration proposes, it is best to do the calibration with the actual EOAT and dress out.
When designing the EOAT, considerable attention needs to be taken to minimize EOAT deflection. The design needs to eliminate the possibility of the EOAT shifting or moving either from the robot’s own inertia, or from any process forces that will transfer back to the robot. This is done by designing an EOAT that uses dowel pins to eliminate the possibility of the EOAT moving or shifting. Also, the effects of the dress out cannot be ignored. Large and improperly designed dress outs affect robot accuracy by pulling on the EOAT.
Software defines the relationship between the part or fixture and the robot base frame. It is important that it is established accurately to account for any variance in the location of either the part or the fixture. This variance will be important when trying to maintain an accurate system. Depending on the application, several software packages can be used to set up this relationship accurately.
Maintenance and Repair
A maintenance and recovery plan is an essential part of an accurate robotic system. Just like there are three components that contribute to the overall accuracy of a robotic system, the maintenance and recovery plan must address all three of these components. FANUC has calibration tools that are designed to validate and even adjust some of these parameters automatically as needed.
Not all options and not all applications will require accuracy validation, but accuracy validation is achieved using metrology such as a laser tracker to measure the robot’s actual position, and compare it to the commanded position. A laser tracker, tooling ball reflectors and a knowledgeable user will be required for most validations.
High Accuracy Positioning Using LVC and an R-2000iB/165F Robot
FANUC Robotics’ Learning Vibration Control (LVC) is designed to allow the robot to learn its vibration characteristics for higher accelerations and speeds. After a path is taught, an accelerometer is added to the tool, and the path is run several times in order for LVC to collect learning data. Using the retrieved data, the robot optimizes the motion to have shorter accelerations while keeping vibration to a minimum. The accelerometer is only used during the learning process.
“LVC, along with integrated iRVision and secondary encoders, work together to provide a highly accurate solution suitable for the aerospace industry. LVC, when used, can decrease cycle times while maintaining accuracy within or beating industry-standard acceptable tolerances,” said the spokesperson.
FANUC Robotics uses iRVision for part location and evaluation. iRVision is integrated robot vision which is the integration of a camera interface built into the robot controller. One or more cameras can be attached to the robot, or they can be in a remote location. In traditional processes, if operators want the robot to manipulate every workpiece in the same way, they need to place every workpiece at exactly the same position. iRVision is a visual sensor system designed to eliminate such restrictions. iRVision measures the position of each workpiece by using cameras and it adjusts the robot motion so that the robot can manipulate the workpiece in the same way as programmed even if the position of the workpiece is different from the workpiece position set when the robot program was taught. All of the application-specific tools developed to simplify the use of the camera as a guidance, identification or inspection tool are integrated with the robot.
iRVision is designed to:
Robotic Aerospace Applications
“LVC is a breakthrough product for operations that require increased accuracy at high speeds allowing the robot to operate with less vibration, even at maximum speed,” said the spokesperson. In this example, a FANUC R-2000iB robot simulates drilling an aerospace panel. FANUC Robotics’ high accuracy solution is designed for accuracy in a given area allowing the robot to be accurately positioned. Secondary encoders allow the robot to further enhance the accuracy by being able to control the robot position within the backlash band, iRVision snaps an image to acquire a local frame for further increased accuracy and to locate the part. The edge positions create a path to guide the robot around the object. Two paths used in this example simulate cutting with a waterjet or plasma cutter, and applying a tool offset to the path for material removal.
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